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探究MySQL中varchar的定义长度

UTF8字符集下:

SQL>create table test(id int auto_increment,name varchar(10),primary key(id));
SQL>insert into test values(null,'1234567890');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
SQL>insert into test values(null,'一二三四五六七八九十');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
SQL>insert into test values(null,'abcdefghig');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)
SQL>insert into test values(null,12345678901);
ERROR 1406 (22001): Data too long for column 'name' at row 1
SQL>insert into test values(null,'一二三四五六七八九十1');
ERROR 1406 (22001): Data too long for column 'name' at row 1
SQL>insert into test values(null,'一二三四五六七八九十一');
ERROR 1406 (22001): Data too long for column 'name' at row 1
SQL>select id,name,length(name),char_length(name) from test;
+----+--------------------------------+--------------+-------------------+ | id | name | length(name) | char_length(name) | +----+--------------------------------+--------------+-------------------+ | 1 | 1234567890 | 10 | 10 | | 2 | 一二三四五六七八九十 | 30 | 10 | | 3 | abcdefghig | 10 | 10 | +----+--------------------------------+--------------+-------------------+ 3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

   GBK字符集下:

SQL>create table test(id int auto_increment,name varchar(10),primary key(id));
SQL>insert into test values(null,'1234567890');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
SQL>insert into test values(null,'一二三四五六七八九十');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
SQL>insert into test values(null,'abcdefghig');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)
SQL>insert into test values(null,12345678901);
ERROR 1406 (22001): Data too long for column 'name' at row 1
SQL>insert into test values(null,'一二三四五六七八九十1');
ERROR 1406 (22001): Data too long for column 'name' at row 1
SQL>insert into test values(null,'一二三四五六七八九十一');
ERROR 1406 (22001): Data too long for column 'name' at row 1
SQL>select id,name,length(name),char_length(name) from test;
+----+----------------------+--------------+-------------------+ | id | name | length(name) | char_length(name) | +----+----------------------+--------------+-------------------+ | 1 | 1234567890 | 10 | 10 | | 2 | 一二三四五六七八九十 | 20 | 10 | | 3 | abcdefghig | 10 | 10 | +----+----------------------+--------------+-------------------+ 3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

   由此可见,varchar定义的长度的单位是字符,哪怕是1个多字节字符也是1个字符,如中文和英文字母都被当作1个字符来对待。

   那么varchar能够定义的最大长度是多少呢?这个和你当前所使用的字符集有关。抛开字符,其最大长度为65535字节(这是最大行大小,由所有列共享),而放在不同的字符集下,能够定义的最大长度就会有所不同,如UTF8下是21845。据说MySQL5中varchar的长度也为字符,而MySQL4中的则为字节,未经证实,感兴趣的有环境可以自己测下。

   顺便补充一下,char数据类型定义的长度也为字符,其最大长度为255。

SQL>create table test(id int auto_increment,name char(5),primary key(id));
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.09 sec)
SQL>insert into test values(null,'123');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
SQL>insert into test values(null,'12345');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
SQL>insert into test values(null,'一二三');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
SQL>insert into test values(null,'一二三四五');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
SQL>insert into test values(null,123456);
ERROR 1406 (22001): Data too long for column 'name' at row 1
SQL>insert into test values(null,'一二三四五1');
ERROR 1406 (22001): Data too long for column 'name' at row 1
SQL>select id,name,length(name),char_length(name) from test;
+----+-----------------+--------------+-------------------+ | id | name | length(name) | char_length(name) | +----+-----------------+--------------+-------------------+ | 1 | 123 | 3 | 3 | | 2 | 12345 | 5 | 5 | | 3 | 一二三 | 9 | 3 | | 4 | 一二三四五 | 15 | 5 | +----+-----------------+--------------+-------------------+ 4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

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